Glaucoma is a “group of eye diseases in which damage occurs to the optic nerve at the back of the eye causing decreased peripheral (side) vision and, eventually, blindness”. In most people, this damage is due to increased pressure inside the eye as a result of blockage of the circulation or drainage of aqueous (the clear fluid that carries oxygen, sugars, and other essential nutrients to the structures of the eye and helps to maintain the shape of the eye).
· Blocked or restricted drainage in your eye
· Medications, such as corticosteroids
· Poor or reduced blood flow to your optic nerve
· High or elevated blood pressure
Most types of glaucoma’s can cause significant visual loss without any symptoms. The following symptoms may occur in some individuals:
· Pain around the eyes when coming out from darkness (e.g., as soon as the person comes out of a theatre)
· Colored halo rings seen around builds, especially during mornings and nights.
· Frequent change of reading glasses, headaches, pain and redness of the eyes.
· Reduced and blur vision in dim illumination and during nights.
· Gradual decrease of side vision with progressing of glaucoma.
Glaucoma cannot be cured. However, appropriate treatment and regular follow – up can preserve residual vision from further damage.
· Medications: Several drugs are available to reduce fluid formation within the eye or promote their drainage from the eye. However, in some cases, drugs may stop working after a period of time.
· Laser treatment
In some type of glaucoma’s, called angle closure glaucoma’s, laser treatment is used to reduce eye pressure..
In some persons with glaucoma, medical or laser treatment is insufficient to arrest glaucoma and surgery is indicated. But this treatment option has its risks and limitations and is reserved as a treatment of last resort.